The thyroid is a gland which is shaped like a butterfly or bow tie and located under the skin in front of your neck. The Thyroid glad made up of two halves called lobes. The thyroid gland main function is to take iodine from your food and convert into thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are Triiodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine (T4). Thyroid cells absorb iodine in your body. Every cell in our body depends on Thyroid hormones for daily regulation of the metabolism. The normal Thyroid gland produces 80 percent of Thyroxine (T4) and about 20 percent of Triiodothyronine (T3). The Pituitary gland controls the Thyroid gland. Whenever Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) level come down, the Pituitary gland produces TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormones) which helps to Thyroid produces more hormones.
Thyroid disorder means your thyroid gland produces either too much or too little hormones. These two types we can call as hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Which cause many problems in daily actives as well as your longterm health condition.
Here are the symptoms of both Hypothyroid and Hyperthyroid.
Symptoms of Hyperthyroid
- Weight change
- Fatigue, muscle aches, and weakness
- Irritability, Mood change, and poor concentration
- Menstrual problems in women
- Enlargement of the thyroid gland
- Abnormal blood pressure
- Skin thinning and change hair color
- Changes in bowel habits (bathroom habits)
Symptoms of Hypothyroid
- Weight gain
- Joint aches and body pains
- Mental fogginess and depressed mood
- Menstrual problems in women
- Hair loss
- Constipation and fatigue
- Memory problem
- Puffiness in the face
- Increased sensitivity to cold
- Lower heart rate
- Dry skin
Cause of Thyroid problem
The two major reasons for thyroid disorders are a nutrient deficiency and autoimmune disease.
- Iodine is a vital nutrient for thyroid function. The deficiency of iodine nutrient can cause both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid. Zinc and Selenium also crucial nutrients for thyroid functions. The deficiency of the nutrients can cause thyroid problem.
- Autoimmune is another cause of a thyroid problem. This progressively destroys the capacity of production of thyroid hormones. This leads to hypothyroidism.
Diagnosis of Thyroid
There are different types of examinations to diagnosis the thyroid, including a blood test, image test, and clinical evaluation. To detect and diagnosing thyroid best trained in these specialized aspects of this process are endocrinologists.
Either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism can be detected by testing the levels of thyroid hormones in your blood. When you are hypothyroid, TSH (thyroid stimulating hormones) levels high in your blood. In the same way, when you are hyperthyroid, TSH levels low in your blood.
Iodide uptake test
This test helps to identify the cause of hyperthyroidism. With this test, we track the amount of iodide absorbed by the thyroid gland. Iodine is the crucial ingredient for thyroid hormones. We get this from the food we eat every day (Ex: iodized salt).
Clinical evaluation is the most important and base element of detecting and diagnosing the thyroid disease.
- Touch your neck, looking for enlargement of thyroid or any lumps or any irregular shapes of your thyroid.
- Listen to your thyroid using the stethoscope. Helps to detect increased blood flow in the thyroid gland.
- Discuss your unexpected weight gain or loss.
- Measuring your body temperature and heartbeat linked to an underactive or overactive thyroid.
For Hyperthyroid Radioactive iodide treatment, anti-thyroid medication and surgery most endocrinologists suggest based on patient condition. For hypothyroidism, there is a standard treatment that involves daily use of synthetic thyroid hormone. This is oral medication. Helps to restore adequate hormone levels and reduce the problem. But using this medication gradually lower your cholesterol level and cause weight gain. However, you have to treatment for lifelong based on your doctor suggestions. Your doctor is likely to check up your Thyroid stimulating hormones levels every year.