The Kidneys are the pair of fist-sized organs located at the bottom of your rib cage towards the lower back. One kidney on each side of the spine. Kidneys play an essential role in having a healthy body. The main responsibilities of kidneys are filtering waste products, excess water, and remove impurities out of the blood. Your kidneys send toxins to the bladder, and later that removes during urination. Here Kidneys play three major functions:
- Removing waste products (toxins) from your body and keeps your bloodstream clean.
- Kidneys produce some hormones that control other body functions, these hormones regulate blood pressure and produce red blood cells.
- Regulating the mineral levels (Ex. Sodium, potassium and Calcium) and fluids in your body.
What is kidney failure?
Kidney failure causes lose the ability to filter waste from your blood sufficiently. Kidney failure also called End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). In this condition, your body becomes overloaded with toxins and it leads to life-threatening if it’s left untreated. If Kidney fails, many health problems arise. Such as:
- Toxic exposure to certain conditions (environmental pollution or some medications)
- Severe dehydration
- Acute and chronic diseases (include blood pressure)
- Kidney trauma
What causes kidney failure?
Most of the cases, Kidney failure is caused by other health problems.
- Not enough blood flow to the kidneys
- Heart diseases
- Urinary track problem or infection
- Diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2)
- High blood pressure
- Kidney infection or some other kidney problems.
Symptoms of Kidney disease
The symptoms of kidney disease depend on the type of disease. Until symptoms become severe, we can’t easily find the problem in some cases. Symptoms may include:
- Puffiness around your eyes in the morning
- Urine that is cloudy or in tea color.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Too much urine or not enough urine
- Trouble sleeping
- Swollen feet and ankle
- Muscle cramps
Types of Kidney Failure
There are mainly two types of Kidney failure. But in depth, there are five types
1. Acute Kidney failure
1 (I). Acute prerenal kidney failure
Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause Acute prerenal kidney failure
1(II). Acute intrinsic kidney failure
Direct trauma to the kidneys such as physical impact or an accident can cause Acute intrinsic kidney failure
2. Chronic Kidney failure
2(I). Chronic prerenal kidney failure
Not enough blood flowing to the kidney for an extended period can cause Chronic prerenal kidney disease.
2(II). Chronic intrinsic kidney failure
Long-term damage to the kidneys due to intrinsic kidney disease can cause Chronic intrinsic kidney failure
2(III). Chronic post-Renal failure
A long-term blockage of urinary track prevents urination and this condition can be called Chronic post-Renal failure.
How to diagnose kidney failure?
Following are some test to diagnose kidney failure
You should consult a specialist to test your urine sample for any abnormalities. It is including abnormal proteins or sugar pills that spills into your urine. And urinary sediment examination measures the amount of red and white blood cells, and to check the high level of bacteria in urine.
Urine volume measurement
Measuring urine output (quantity) helps to diagnose kidney failure. For instance, the low urinary output may cause urinary blockage.
Blood Sample test helps whether your blood is filtered by your kidneys, such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine (Cr).
Kidney Tissue sample
To known abnormal deposits, scarring or infection to your organism this test will help. Doctors use kidney biopsy to collect the tissue sample.
Tests include ultrasounds, MRIs, and CT scans provide images of invisible parts (kidney and urinary tract). This test helps to know any blockage or abnormalities in kidneys.
Treatment for kidney failure
Treatment for kidney failure depends on the reason for kidney failure. Doctor helps you to determine which treatment is best.
Dialysis artificially removes toxins and extra fluid from your blood when your kidneys are not working properly to do this. Dialysis is two types one is hemodialysis and another peritoneal dialysis. In Haemodialysis, a machine filters toxins and excess fluids from your blood. In Peritoneal dialysis, Catheter (a thin tube) inserted into the patient abdomen fills. That absorbs waste and excess fluids.
This is another treatment for kidney failure. In this situation, your failure kidney must replace with a healthy kidney from a donor into your body. The transplanted kidney may come from deceased or living donors.
Preventing kidney failure
The following are steps to reduce the risk of kidney failure.
- A healthy diet high in vegetables and fruits and low in salt, sugar.
- Drink plenty of water, avoid soft drinks
- Give up smoking and alcohol intake.
- Regular exercise
- Avoid stressful thoughts and lifestyle